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Syllabus for PLSC/CHEM 608
Environmental Soil Chemistry

Next offered in Spring 2015

 

1. ENVIRONMENTAL SOIL CHEMISTRY: AN OVERVIEW

Evolution of Soil Chemistry
Global Environmental Challanges:Nexus Between Soil, Water, Food and Climate
Contaminants in Soils and Water
Molecular Environmental Soil Chemistry

2. INORGANIC SOIL COMPONENTS

Introduction
Pauling's Rules
Primary Soil Minerals
Secondary Soil Minerals
Specific Surface of Soil Minerals
Surface Charge of Soil Minerals
Identification of Minerals by X-Ray Diffraction
Use of Clay Minerals to Retain Organic Chemicals

3. CHEMISTRY OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER

Introduction
Effects of Soil Formation Factors on SOM Contents
Carbon Sequestration
Composition of SOM
Fractionation of SOM
SOM Structure
Functional Groups and Charge Characteristics
Humic Substance-Metal Interactions
SOM-Clay Complexes
Retention of Pesticides and Other Organic Substances by Humic Substances

4. SOIL SOLUTION-SOLID PHASE EQUILIBRIA

Introduction
Measurement of the Soil Solution
Speciation of the Soil Solution
Ion Activity and Activity Coefficients
Dissolution and Solubility Processes

5. SORPTION PHENOMENA ON SOILS

Introduction and Terminology
Surface Functional Groups
Surface Complexes
Adsorption Isotherms
Equilibrium-Based Adsorption Models
Speciation of Soils
Sorption of Metal Cations
Sorption of Anions
Surface Precipitation
Speciation of Soils
Points of Zero Charge

6. ION EXCHANGE PROCESSES

Introduction
Characteristics of Ion Exchange
Cation Exchange Equilibrium Constants and Selectivity Coefficients
Thermodynamics of Ion Exchange
Relationship between Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Ion Exchange

7. KINETICS OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROCESSES

Rate-Limiting Steps and Time Scales of Soil Chemical Reactions
Rate Laws
Determination of Reaction Order and Rate Constants
Multiple Site Models
Kinetic Methodologies
Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates
Kinetics of Important Soil Chemical Processes

8. REDOX CHEMISTRY OF SOILS

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Potentials
Eh vs pH and pe vs pH Diagrams
Measurement and Use of Redox Potentials
Submerged Soils
Redox Reactions Involving Inorganic and Organic Pollutants

9. THE CHEMISTRY OF SOIL ACIDITY

Introduction
Historical Perspective of Soil Acidity
Solution Chemistry of Aluminum
Exchangeable and Nonexchangeable Aluminum
Soil Acidity
Liming Soils

10. THE CHEMISTRY OF SALINE AND SODIC SOILS

Introduction
Causes of Soil Salinity
Sources of Soluble Salts
Important Salinity and Sodicity Parameters
Classification and Reclamation of Saline and Sodic Soils
Effects of Soil Salinity and Sodicity on Soil Structural Properties
Effects of Soil Salinity on Plant Growth

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