SUSTAINING THE WORLD THROUGH SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
<< Planthoppers Main Index

Genus Lycorma Stål, 1863


Overview - Lycorma Stål

Family Fulgoridae

Subfamily Aphaeninae Blanchard, 1847

Tribe Aphaenini Blanchard, 1847

Genus Lycorma Stål, 1863.

 

Type species (in original combination): Aphana imperialis White, 1846: 330.

Synonyms: None.

Distribution: primarily Indomalayan, but also temperate China.  One species adventive to Korea, Japan and recently USA (Pennsylvania: Berks, and now Montgomery county)

Recognized species

Lycorma delicatula (White, 1845: 37)

   Lycorma delicatula jole Stål, 1863: 234

   Lycorma delicatula operosa (Walker, 1858: 46)
Lycorma imperialis (White, 1846: 330)
    Lycorma imperialis punicea (Hope, 1843)
Lycorma meliae Kato, 1929
Lycorma olivacea Kato, 1929

Economic Importance:

Lycorma delicatula has recently been found in Berks Co., Pennsylvania.  In September 2014, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture has confirmed the presence of Lycorma delicatula (White, 1845) near Reading, PA this summer.  This species probably came from China, and may have arrived 2 years ago (hence has successfully overwintered).  The area is now under quarantine, and a local pest alert has been issued (a national pest alert is forthcoming as of this writing).  The common name of 'spotted lanternfly' has been suggested for this species.  It is possible that there are other undetected populations (the port-of-entry appears to have been New York City).  If you find this species (outside of the quarantined area) contact your local extension office (e.g., Penn State Extension offices), Email badbug@pa.gov, or call the Invasive Species Hotline at 1-866-253-7189.

Lycorma delicatula arrived into Korea in 2006 (and subsequently Japan) (see Han et al. 2008), where it has become broadly established.  The primary host of the species is tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), but feeds / reproduces on a variety of plants (mostly trees).  Particularly troublesome is that grapes (Vitis sp) are a particularly preferred host, but a number of tree fruits (apple, cherry) are on the host list as well. The species sequesters toxins (esp. from its preferred host) and generally birds will not consume this species.

Webpage from PA Department of Agriculture on Lycorma detection and control efforts.

This species now found in Montgomery county.

If you find this species in PA (or elsewhere in the US, but these contacts are for Pennsylvania), you can:

   Collect a specimen: Turn the adult specimen or egg mass in to the department’s Entomology Lab for verification. First, place the sample in alcohol or hand sanitizer in a leak proof container.

   Take a picture: Submit photographs to Badbug@pa.gov.

   Report a site: Call the Bad Bug hotline at 1-866-253-7189 with details of the siting and your contact information.

 

Parasites

Known to be parasitized by a eupelmid wasp Anastatus orientalis (which is an egg parasite, see Kim et al. 2011, Choi et al. 2014 cited below) and the dryinid wasp Dryinus browni Ashmead, 1905 (here - do not have complete citation), and Dryinus stantoni Ashmead, 1904 (= Dryinus lycormae Yang, 1994).  Dryinids are external parasites of nymphs, usually attached near the wing. (Dryinus browni is listed in Guglielmino et al. (2013) as having Zanna dohrni (Stål) as its host species, but Mita (2009) included Lycorma as a host as well.)

 

Known host plants

The primary hosts for Lycorma delicatula appear to be Ailanthus and grape.  The following is a simple list of plant species Lycorma delicatula is known to use (the list does not imply that they are 'good' hosts, including the fruit trees).  Most of the listed species are from the eastern Palearctic.  Will provide more detail later.  Links are to USDA PLANTS or Tropicos.

Acer palmatum Thunb. - Japanese maple

Acer saccharinum L. - Silver maple

Actinidia chinensis Planch. - Kiwi

Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle - Tree of Heaven

Alnus hirsuta Turcz. ex Rupr. - Alder

Angelica dahurica (Fisch.) Benth. & Hook. f.

Aralia cordata Thunb. - Udo

Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. - Japanese angelica tree

Arctium lappa L. - Greater burdock

Betula platyphylla Sukaczev - Asian white birch

Castanea crenata Siebold & Zucc. - Japanese chestnut

Cedrela fissilis Vell.

Cornus controversa Hemsl. ex Prain - Giant dogwood

Cornus kousa Hance - Kousa dogwood

Cornus officinalis Siebold & Zucc. - Asiatic dogwood

Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. - autumn olive

Firmiana simplex (L.) W. Wight - Chinese parasoltree

Hibiscus syriacus L. - Rose of Sharon

Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

Juglans nigra L. - Black walnut

Juglans regia L. (as Juglans sinensis (C. DC.) Dode) - English walnut

Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim. - Amur maackia

Magnolia kobus DC. - Kobus magnolia

Magnolia obovata Thunb.

Malus pumila Mill. - Paradise apple

Malus sp. - Apple

Melia azedarach L. - Chinaberrytree

Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino - Rough potato

Morus alba L. - White mulberry

Morus bombycis Koidz.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. - Virginia creeper

Phellodendron amurense Rupr. - Amur corktree

Philadelphus schrenkii Rupr.

Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. - Nigaki

Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. - Japanese red pine

Pinus strobus L. - Eastern white pine

Platanus orientalis L. - Oriental planetree

Populus alba L. - White poplar

Populus koreana Rehder

Populus tomentiglandulosa

Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc. - Japanese apricot

Prunus persica (L.) Batsch - Peach

Prunus salicina Lindl. - Japanese plum

Prunus serrulata Lindl. - Japanese flowering cherry

Prunus ×yedoensis Matsum. (pro sp.) [subhirtella × speciosa] - hybrid cherry

Pterocarya stenoptera C. DC. - Chinese wingnut

Pyrus calleryana Decne. - Callery pear

Quercus aliena Blume

Rhus javanica L.

Robinia pseudoacacia L. - Black locust

Rosa hybrida - Hybrid roses

Rosa multiflora Thunb. - Multiflora rose

Rosa rugosa Thunb. - Rugosa rose

Rubus crataegifolius Bunge

Salix sp. - Willow species

Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A. Braun - False spiraea

Sorbus commixta Hedl.

Styrax japonicus Siebold & Zucc. - Japanese snowbell

Styrax obassis Siebold & Zucc.

Syringa vulgaris L. - Common lilac

Tetradium daniellii (Benn.) T.G. Hartley (bee-bee tree, as Evodia danielii - Korean Evodia)

Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem.

Toona sinensis 'flamingo'

Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F.A. Barkley (as Rhus verniciflua) - Chinese lacquer

Vitis amurensis Rupr. - Amur grape

Vitis vinifera L. - Wine grape

Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Makino - Japanese zelkova

 

Host table from Park et al. (2009)

Table from Dara et al. 2015

Recognition:

 

Adult Lycorma delicatula (Photograph by Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture)

Lycorma delicatula (Photograph by Holly Raguza, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture).

Lycorma delicatula (Beijing, 2007; photograph by Judy Hough-Goldstein, University of Delaware)

 

Lycorma delicatula, first instar Greg Hoover, Dept. of Entomology, Penn State UniversityGreg Hoover, Dept. of Entomology, Penn State University

Greg Hoover, Dept. of Entomology, Penn State UniversityGreg Hoover, Dept. of Entomology, Penn State University

Lycorma delicatula, first instar, photographed in Berks Co., PA on May 12, 2015 by Greg Hoover, Dept. of Entomology, Penn State University

Collecting

[noted above]

Molecular resources:

[soon to come; but see esp. Park et al. 2012, 2013 below]

 

Selected references: [preliminary]

Barringer, L. E., L. R. Donovall, S.-E. Spichiger, D. Lynch and D. Henry. 2015. The first New World record of Lycorma delicatula (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Entomological News 125(1): 20-23.

Cho, S.R., J.E. Lee, J.W. Jeong, J.O. Yang, C.M. Yoon, and G.H. Kim. 2011 Comparison of cuticular hydrocarbons of different developmental stages of the spot clothing wax cicada, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 50(3): 185-194.

Choi ManYoun, Yang ZhongQi, Wang XiaoYi, Tang YanLong, Hou ZhenRong, Kim JeongHwan, Byeon YoungWoong. 2014. Parasitism rate of egg parasitoid Anastatus orientalis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) on Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in China.  Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2) 135-139. (link should open to PDF)

Choi, D.H., K.H. Kim, and Y.K. Jang. 2011. Agonistic interactions between nymphs of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 14(1): 21-25.

Choi, D.S., D.I. Kim, S.J. Ko, B.R. Kang, J.D., Park, S.G. Kim, and K.J.Choi. 2012. Environmentally-friendly control methods and forecasting the hatching time Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in Jeonnam Province. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 51(4): 371-376. (link should open to PDF)

Chou. I. A. 1946. A study on Lycorma delicatula White. Entomologia et Ars 1(2/3/4): 31-54.


Chu, H. J. 1931. Notes of the Life-History of Lycorma delicatula White in Nanking. Peking Natural History Bulletin 5(2): 33-35.

Dara, S. K., L. Barringer, and S. P. Arthurs. 2015. Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae): A New Invasive Pest in the United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 6(1): 20; DOI: 10.1093/jipm/pmv021.

Ding, JianQing; Wu, Y.; Zheng Hao; Fu WeiDong; Reardon, R.; Liu Min. 2006. Assessing potential biological control of the invasive plant, tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima.  Biocontrol Science and Technology 16(5/6): 547-566.

Dong, J. 1983. Studies on the biology of Dryinus sp. , a hymenopterous parasitoid of Lycorma delicatula White (Homopt: Fulgoridae). Natural Enemies of Insects 5(4): 224-227.

Frantsevich, L., A.H. Ji, Z.D. Dai, J.T. Wang, and S.N. Gorb. 2008. Adhesive properties of the arolium of a lantern-fly, Lycorma delicatula (Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoridae). Journal of Insect Physiology 54(5): 818-827.

Guglielmino, A., M. Olmi & C. Bückle. 2013. An updated host-parasite catalogue of world Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 3740(1): 001–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3740.1.1.

Han, J.M., H. Kim, E.J. Lim, S. Le, Y.J. Kwon, and S. Cho. 2008. Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoridae: Aphaeninae) finally, but suddenly arrived in Korea. Entomological Research 38: 281-286.

He, H.P., G.L. Zhong, G. Xia, and F.R. Wang. 2007. Spot clothing wax cicada occurrence and prevention measures in the grapes on the Wuhan area. Friends of Fruit 2007(3): 36 & plate 4 (PDF, in Chinese).

Hong, EuiJeong; Jeon YongLak; Yoon JuChang; Kim JinYoung; Lee MinHo; Kim JaeWon; Park SeongJoon; Kim KiGyoung; Kim JoongHyon; Kim ByungJin. 2012. Insect diversity of Mt. Oseosan.  Journal of Korean Nature 5(3): 251-266 (PDF). [Lycorma delicatula reported]

Hope, F. W. 1843. On some rare and beautiful insects from Silhet, chiefly in the collection of Frederick John Parry, Esq. F. L. S. The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 19: 131-136.

Jang, Y., H.G. An, H. Kim, and K.H. Kim. 2013. Spectral preferences of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Entomological Research 43(2): 115-122.

Minhyung Jung, Jaewon Kim, Doo-Hyung Lee. 2015. Potential of harmonic radar tracking to study insect dispersal: a case study with Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Presentation O-22 at the Korean Society of Applied Entomology biannual meeting (www.entomology.or.kr). Oct. 15-16, 2015. [PDF of program available, but website is in Korean and I can't determined further details]

Kang, Chang-Ku; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G. 2011. Effect of sex and bright coloration on survival and predator-induced wing damage in an aposematic lantern fly with startle display. Ecological Entomology 36(6): 709-716 (pdf).

Kato, M. 1929. Descriptions of some new Formosan Homoptera. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa 19: 540-551.

Kim, HyoJoong. 2013. Morphometric analysis of wing variation of lantern fly, Lycorma delicatula from Northeast Asia.  Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 52(4): 265-271.

Kim, HyoJoong; Kim MinYoung; Kwon DeokHo; Park SangWook; Lee YeRim; Huang JunHao; Kai Shi; Lee HeungSik; Hong KiJeong; Jang YiKweon; Lee SeungHwan. 2013. Molecular comparison of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) isolates in Korea, China, and Japan.  Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 16(4): 503-506.

Kim, H.J., M.Y. Kim, D.H. Kwon, S.W. Park, Y.R. Lee, H.Y. Jang, S.H. Lee, S.H. Lee, J.H. Huang, K.J. Hong, and Y.W. Jang. 2011. Development and characterization of 15 microsatellite loci from Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Animal Cells and Systems 15(4): 295-300.

Kim, H.J., M.Y. Kim, D.H. Kwon, S.W. Park, Y.R. Lee, J.H. Huang, S. Kai, H.S. Lee, K.J. Hong, Y.K. Jang, and S.H. Lee. 2013. Molecular comparison of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) isolates in Korea, China, and Japan. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 16(4): 503-506.

Kim, I.K., S.H. Koh, J.S. Lee, W.I. Choi, and S.C. Shin. 2011. Discovery of an egg parasitoid of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) an invasive species in South Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 14(2): 213-215.

Kim, J.G., E.H. Lee, Y.M. Seo, and N.Y. Kim. 2011. Cyclic behavior of Lycorma delicatula (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) on host plants. Journal of Insect Behavior 24(6): 423-435.

Kim, Sun-Kook, Gi-Yeul Lee, Yun-Ho Shin and Gil-Hah Kim. 2010. Chemical Control Effect Against Spot Clothing Wax Cicada, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) Nymphs and Adults. Korean Journal of Pesticide Science 14(4): 440-445.

Lallemand, V. 1963. Révision des Fulgoridae (Homoptera). Deuxième partie. faunes asiatique et Australienne. Mémoires de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, 2e série 75: 1-99.

Lee, J.E., S.R. Moon, H.G. Ahn, S.R. Cho, J.O. Yang, C.M. Yoon, C.M. and G.H. Kim. 2009. Feeding behavior of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) and response on feeding stimulants of some plants. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 48(4): 467-477.

Lee, J.S., I.K. Kim, S.H. Koh, S.J. Cho, S.J. Jang, S.H. Pyo, and W. Choi. 2011. Impact of minimum winter temperature on Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) egg mortality. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 14(1): 123-125.

Lee, S.J., and S. C. Park. 2013. Attraction effect against Lycorma delicatula, antioxidant activity and local irritation test of Ailanthus altissima extract. Korean Journal of Veterinary Research 53(4): 231-237.

Li, J.B., L.P. Fang, X.G. Song, and J.P. Xue. 2009. Biological characteristics of grapes spot clothing wax cicada and the occurrence of Huaibei area. Modern Agricultural Science and Technology 2009(22): 137-138 (PDF in Chinese).

Liu, Yu-sheng, Yan-xia Chen, Fei Lü and Hua He. 2006. Study on the Primary Identification of Intestinal Bacteria In Lycorma delicatula (White). Journal of Shandong Agricultural University (Natural Science Edition) 4: 495-498.

Lieu, K. O. V. 1934. External morphology and internal anatomy of the lantern-fly, Lycorma delicatula White.  Yearbook of the Bureau of Entomology, Hangchow, China 3: 2-25 (PDF).

Lin, J., Y.L. Zhang, and Y.L. Wang. 2011. Study on comparative morphology of male reproductive system of three planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Journal of Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry 39(8): 125-130.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1947. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle IV Fulgoroidea. Part 9 Fulgoridae. Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts. (Lycorma pages here, PDF)

Mita, T. 2009. A taxonomic study of the Dryininae (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) of Japan, with description of a new species of Pseudodryinus. Zootaxa 2168: 45-56.

Park, M. 2015. Overwintering ecology and population genetics of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in Korea. Dissertation Entomology Program, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University. 212 pp.

Park Ji-Doo; Kim MinYoung; Lee SangGil; Shin SangChul; Kim JunHeon; Park IlKwon. 2009. Biological characteristics of Lycorma delicatula and the control effects of some insecticides.  Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 48(1): 53-57.

Park, M. Yong-Joon Kwon, Ju-won Yoo and Joon-Ho Lee. 2011. Cold hardiness of overwintering eggs of five Lycorma delicatula (White) populations in South Korea. International Symposium on Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the Korean Society of Applied Entomology 5: 174. (abstract)

Park, M., K.S. Kim, and J.H. Lee. 2012. Isolation and characterization of eight microsatellite loci from Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) for population genetic analysis in Korea. Molecular Biology Reports 39(5): 5637-5641.

Park, M., K.S. Kim, and J.H. Lee. 2013. Genetic structure of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) populations in Korea: implication for invasion processes in heterogeneous landscapes. Bulletin of Entomological Research 103(4): 414-424.

Schaum, H. R. 1850. Fulgorellae. Erster Section A-G. In: Ersch I. S. & Gruber I. G. 1850. Allgemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Kunste in alnhaberischen folge von Genannten Schriftstellern bearbeitet und herausgegeben, 51. p. 58-73.

Shim, Jae-Kyoung and Kyeong-Yeoll Lee. 2015. Molecular characterization of heat shock protein 70 cognate cDNA and its upregulation after diapause termination in Lycorma delicatula eggs. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. doi: 10.1016/j.aspen.2015.08.005 [pdf of preprint]

Stål, C. 1863b. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Fulgoriden. Entomologische Zeitung 24: 230-251. (BHL, Lycorma on P. 234)

Sun, J.H., Z.D. Liu, K.O. Britton, P. Cai, D. Orr, and J. Hough-Goldstein. 2006. Survey of phytophagous insects and foliar pathogens in China for a biocontrol perspective on kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen and S. Almeida (Fabaceae). Biological Control 36: 22-31 (available here).

Tomisawa, A., S. Ohmiya, H. Fukutomi, K. Hayashi, and T. Ishikawa. 2013. Biological notes on Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera, Fulgoridae) in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. Japanese Journal of Entomology 16(1): 3-14.

Walker, F. 1858. Supplement. List of the specimens of Homopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. 369 pp. (BHL, Aphaena operosa on p. 46).

Wang, D.L., Z.Q. Wang, S.W. Wang, and H.X. Liu. 2000. [Occurrence and control techniques spot clothing wax cicada]. Plant Protection Technology and Extension 20(5): 19-20 (PDF, in Chinese).

White, A. 1845. Descriptions of a new genus and some new species of Homopterous Insects from the East in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 15: 34-37.

White, A. 1846. Descriptions of some apparently new species of Homopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 17: 330-333.

Yang, Chikun. 1994. Descriptions of Dryinus lycormae sp. n. and its biological notes (Hymenoptera Dryinidae). pp. 37–42. In: Shen, X. & Shi, Z. (eds.), Fauna and Taxonomy of Insects in Henan, vol. 1. Chinese Press Agric. Sci. and Tech [China Agricultural Science and Technology Press]., Beijng, China. 97 pp. [Chinese with English summary ISBN/ISSN: 7800267806]

Yang, Zhong-Qi, G. Gibson, L. M. Cao, X. Y. Wang,and L. W. Song. 2015. Revision of the species in genus Anastatus (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) in China. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 108 (In press).

Yang, Zhong-Qi , Wan-Yuong Choi, Liang-Ming Cao, Xiao-Yi Wang, Zheng-Rong Hou. 2015. A new species of Anastatus (Hymenoptera: Eulpelmidae) from China, parasitizing eggs of Lycorma delicatula (Homoptera: Fulgoridae). Zoological Systematics 40(3): 290–302. DOI: 10.11865/zs.20150305 [pdf] [DOI goes directly to PDF; formerly Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica]

Yang Zhong-qi, Choi Man-Young, Lee Hwi Jong and Byeon Young Woong. 2015. Asynchronous Emergence Mechanisms of Anatatus orientalis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), an Egg Parasitoid of Lantern-fly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Presentation P054 at the Biannual meeting of the Korean Society of Applied Entomology (www.entomology.or.kr). April 23-25, 2015. [abstract available]


Yoon, C.M., S.R. Moon, J.W. Jeong, Y.H. Shin, S.R. Cho, K.S. Ahn, J.O. Yang, and G.H. Kim. 2011. Repellency of lavender oil and linalool against spot clothing wax cicada, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) and their electrophysiological responses. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 14(4): 411-416.

Zuo, J.H., S.M. Ding, X.B. Qin, Z.R. Wang, L.L. Bai. 2008. [Dryinus browni Ashmead biological characteristics observational study]. Journal of Shandong Forestry Science and Technology 2724(5): 16-18 (pdf in Chinese).