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Genus Metcalfa Caldwell, 1951


Overview - Metcalfa Caldwell

 

Family Flatidae

Subfamily Flatinae 

Tribe Nephesini Melichar, 1923

Genus Metcalfa Caldwell, 1951 (in Caldwell & Martorell, 1951)

Distribution: North America, Cuba, Central and South America; adventive in Europe

Type species (in original combination): Flata pruinosa Say, 1830.

 

Recognized species

[I've included the synoptic synonymy list here for now - based primarily on Metcalf (1957) - but it will be eventually moved elsewhere to a species list]

Metcalfa frigida Metcalf and Bruner, 1948 - Cuba

Metcalfa persea Metcalf and Bruner, 1948 - Cuba

Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) ("citrus flatid planthopper") - USA: AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, PA, RI, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI; CAN: NB, ON, QC; Bermuda; Brazil [error?], Cuba; Jamaica, Mexico, Puerto Rico; Italy (inc Sicily, Sardini), Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Hungary, Korea, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Russia.

  = Flata pruinosa Say, 1830: 237.

  = Poeciloptera pruinosa (Say, 1830); comb. by Schaum, 1850: 72.

  = Ormenis pruinosa (Say, 1830); comb. by Glover, 1877: 28.

  = Melormenis pruinosa (Say, 1830); comb. by Metcalf and Bruner, 1948.

  = Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830); comb. by Caldwell in Caldwell and Martorell, 1951: 236.

Metcalfa pruinosa cubana (Metcalf and Bruner, 1948)  - Cuba

  = Melormenis pruinosa cubana Metcalf and Bruner, 1948: 96.

  = Metcalfa pruinosa cubana (Metcalf and Bruner, 1948); comb. by Metcalf, 1954: 11.

Metcalfa regularis (Fowler, 1900) - Mexico, Guyana

  = Flata regularis Fowler, 1900: 53

  = Ormenis regularis (Fowler, 1900); comb. by Melichar, 1902: 101.

  = Melormenis regularis (Fowler, 1900); comb. by Metcalf, 1938: 395.

  = Metcalfa regularis (Fowler, 1900); comb. by Caldwell in Caldwell and Martorell, 1951: 236.

Metcalfa siboney (Metcalf and Bruner, 1948) - Cuba

  = Melormenis siboney Metcalf and Bruner, 1948: 96.

  = Metcalfa siboney (Metcalf and Bruner, 1948); comb. by Metcalf, 1954: 11.

Hosts:

Metcalfa pruinosa and Metcalfa pruinosa cubana are reported in Wilson et al. (1994) as being polyphagous.

Metcalfa pruinosa cubana was reported by Metcalf and Bruner (1948) from Annona reticulata L. (custard apple, Annonaceae), Coffea arabica L. (coffee, Rubiaceae), Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape, Polygonaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Guava, Myrtaceae), and "other plants".

Metcalfa pruinosa feeds on a wide variety of trees and shrubs (for example - see Metcalfa pruinosa wiki page), including citris and grape.  See Wilson and McPherson (1980, 1981) for lists of hosts from southern Illinois. Preda and Skolka (2011) reported Metcalfa pruinosa from 110 species in 49 families in southeastern Europe. 

European hosts for Metcalfa pruinosa include Acer campestre L.(hedge maple, Aceareae), Acer platanoides L.(Norway maple), Clematis vitalba L. (evergreen clematis, Ranunculaceae), Cornus sanguinea L. (bloodtwig dogwood, Cornaceae), Crataegus monogyna, Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum vulgare, Malus domesticus, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Prunus domestica, Rhamnus catharticus, Robinia pseudacacia, Rubus fruticosus, Salix sp., Sambucus nigra, Ulmus sp., Urtica dioica, Viburnum lantana and V. opulus.

Also reported for Metcalfa pruinosa: Acer spp., Clematis vitalba, Cornus spp., Crataegus spp., Ligustrum vulgare, Robinia pseudacacia, Salix spp., Sambucus nigra, Ulmus spp.;  Grape (Vitis vinifera), Citrus, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), peach (Prunus persica), blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), raspberry (Rubus idaeus). In Florida, reported are camellias, azaleas, viburnum, magnolias, hollies, seagrape, cherry laurel, peach, orange and grapefruit (with preference of grapefruit over orange in Texas) (this information appears to be based on a 1969 Florida extension bulletin (Mead 1969).

Economic Importance:

Of considerable concern in orchards and vineyards in its introduced range, particularly in southern Europe.  In North America, reported on ornamental or agricultural plants including citrus, dahlia, ginseng, salvia (Wilson & O'Brien 1987 et cit.) and walnut (Weber & Wilson 1981), as well as those listed above in Florida..

Webpages and electronic resources (specific to Metcalfa; popular or non-literature sources)

NCSU Insect Museum on Metcalfa pruinosa

Wikipedia entry.

Bugguide Metcalfa pruinosa.

CABI Invasive Species Compendium (Beta). 

(I'm sure there are many more)

 

Recognition

Metcalfa pruinosa rhoto by Doug Tallamy, University of Delaware, Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology.

Metcalfa pruinosa photo by Dave Funk of Stroud Water Research Center.

 

Metcalfa pruinosa from Jericho, Vermont.

Molecular resources

Strangely, there are no data on this genus in Genbank or BOLD

Selected references

Alma, A. 2000. I Flatidi Italiani Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) origine, diffusione e aspetti fitopatologici. In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp.9-11.

Bagnoli, B. and A. Lucchi. 2000. Dannosità e misure di controllo integrato.[Damage and control of Metcalfa pruinosa in agricultural and urban environments] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 65-88.

Bajc, M. 2003. Metcalfa pruinosa Say in Slovenia. Proteus 66(4): 161-169, 190, 192. [Slovenian]

Barbattini, R. 2002. La presenza di Metcalfa pruinosa e l'apicoltura. Atti della Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia Rendiconti 49: 149-163.

Barbattini, R., M. Greatti, M. Iob, A.G. Sabatini, G.L. Marcazzan, and R. Colombo. 1992. Apicultural interest of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say): Production and physico-chemical characteristics of honeydew honey. Apicoltore Moderno 83(1): 5-11 [Italian]

Blanc, M. and J.C.Laurent. 2000. Les cicadelles nuisibles a la vigne (Scaphoideus titanus, Empoasca vitis, Metcalfa pruinosa) [Pest leafhoppers of grapevine (Scaphoideus titanus, Empoasca vitis, Metcalfa pruinosa)]. Progres Agricole et Viticole (France) 117(11): 247-253.

Bucchianico, N. Di and A. Mazzocchetti. 2003. Impiego di Neodryinus typhlocybae contro Metcalfa pruinosa in Abruzzo [Utilization of Neodryinus typhlocybae against Metcalfa pruinosa in Abruzzi]. Informatore Agrario 59(44): 69-71.

Caldwell, J.S. and L.F. Martorell. 1951 [dated1950]. Review of the Auchenorynchous [sic] Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 34(2): 133-269.

Ciampolini, M., A. Grossi, and G. Zottarelli. 1987. Danni alla soia per attacchi di Metcalfa pruinosa. Informatore Agrario 43(15): 101-103.

Cravedi, P. 1989. Infestazioni di Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Auchenorrhyncha Flatidae) in provincia di Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna) [Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Auchenorrhyncha Flatidae) infestation in the province of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna) (Italy).] Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria di Bachicoltura 21: 203-205.

Dean, H.A. and J.C. Baily. 1961. A flatid planthopper, Metcalfa pruniosa. Journal of Economic Entomology 54: 1104-1106.

della Giustina, W. 1987. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say 1830), nouveaute pour la faune de France (Hom. Flatidae). Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de France 191(3-4): 89-92.

della Giustina, W. and E. Navarro. 1993. Metcalfa pruinosa, un nouvel envahisseur? Phytoma la Defense les Vegetaux 451: 30-32.

Dlabola, J. 1981. Metcalfa pruinosa. (Say, 1830), eine schädliche nordamerikanische Flatide als Erstfund in der Palaearktis. Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 8(9): 91-94.

Dradi, D. 2002. Lotta biologica alla Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) con Neodryinus typhlocybae (Ashmead, 1893): Il Caso di Ravenna (Insecta Homoptera Flatidae, Hymenoptera Dryinidae). Quaderno di Studi e Notizie di Storia Naturale della Romagna 17: 77-90.

D'uso, C. 1984 Infestazioni di Metcalfa pruinosa nel Veneto. IF (Informatore Fitopatologico) 34(5): 11-14.

D'uso, C. 1987. A new pest of vine in Europe: Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Homoptera: Flatidae). In: R. Cavalloro, (ed.). Integrated pest control in viticulture. A.A. Balkema for the Commission of the European Communities, Rotterdam and Brookfield. Pp. 103-107

D'uso, C. and F. Pavan. 1988. The occurrence of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) in Italy. In: C. Vidano and A. Arzone, (eds.). 6th Auchenorrhyncha Meeting, Turin, Italy, September 7-11, 1987. Proceedings. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Italy. Pp. 545-552

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 2008. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Heath on a request from the European Commission on Pest risk assessment made by France on Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) considered by France as harmful in French overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion. The EFSA Journal 701: 1-17

Frilli, F., A. Villani, and P. Zandigiacomo. 2002. Neodryinus typhlocybae (Ashmead) antagonista di Metcalfa pruinosa (Say). Risultati di liberazioni pluriennali effettuate in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Entomologica (Bari) 35: 27-38.

Gervasini, E. 2000. Il programma di lotta biologico a Metcalfa pruinosa in Lombardia. In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp. 21-26.

Girolami, V. 2000. Neodryinus typhlocybae: introduziona, diffusione e comportamento. In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp. 12-14.

Girolami, V. and L. Conte. 1999. Possibilita di controllo chimico e biologico di Metcalfa pruinosa ad opera di Neodryinus typhlocybae. Informatore Fitopatologico 5: 20-25.

Girolami, V. and L. Mazzon. 1999. Controllo di Metcalfa pruinosa ad opera di Neodryinus typhlocybae. Informatore Agrario 19: 87-91.

Girolami, V. and P. Camporese. 1994. Prima moltiplicazione in Europa di Neodryinus typhlocybae su Metcalfa pruinosa. In: Atti XVII Congresso Nazionale Italano di Entomologia, Udine, Giugno. Pp. 655-658.

Giustina, W. della. 1986. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say), nouveauté pour la fauna de France (Hom.: Flatidae). Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de France 91(3-4): 89-92.

Giustina, W. della and E. Navarro. 1993 Giustina, W. della and E. Navarro. 1993. Metcalfa pruinosa, un nouvel envahisseur? Phytoma: la defense des vegetaux. La Revue Professionnelle de la Protection des Plantes 451: 30-32.

Glover, T. 1877a. "Homoptera." In Report of the Entomologist and Curator of the Museum. Report of the [United States] Commissioner of Agriculture. 1876:17-46, Fig(s). 1-59.

Gnezdilov, V.M. and E.S. Sugonyaev. 2009. First record of Metcalfa pruinosa (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Flatidae) from Russia. Zoosystematica Rossica 18: 260-261.

Gogan, A., I. Grozea, and A.M. Virteiu. 2010. Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Insecta: Homoptera: Flatidae) - first occurrence in western part of Romania. Research Journal of Agricultural Science 42(4): 63-67.

Greatti, M. and V. Girolami. 1994. Efficacia di soluzioni dilavanti nel controllo degli stadi giovanili di Metcalfa pruinosa (Say). Informatore Agrario 50(21): 77-79.

Held, T., M.L. Zoratti, and G. Vorwohl. 2003. Presenza naturale di destrine nella melata di Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera, Flatidae). Apicoltore Moderno 88(4): 175-182.

Heller, F.R. 1991. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera, Flatidae). Mitteilungen Entomologischer Verein Stuttgart 26: 60.

Hellrigl, K.and S. Minerbi. 2001. Amerikanische Obstbaum-Zikade Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830). Gredleriana 1: 468-470.

International Institute of Entomology. 1992. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) Homoptera: Flatidae. International Institute of Entomology Distribution Maps of Pests Series A Agricultural 529: 2pp., Unpaginated.

Jermini, M., R. Brunetti and M. Bonavia. 2000. Introduzione di Neodryinus typhlocybae per il conteniment biologico di Metcalfa pruinosa: prime esperienze in Svizzera. In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp. 18-20.

Kahrer A. and R. Moosbeckhofer. 2003. Ein neuer Schädling - Metcalfa pruinosa - in Österreich eingeschleppt. Bienenvater 124(10): 16-19.

Kim Y., M. Kim, K.-J. Hong, and S. Lee. 2011. Outbreak of an exotic flatid, Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Hemiptera: Flatidae), in the capital region of Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 14(4): 473–478.

Laudonia, S., P. Mancini and D. Carella. 2004. Neodrynus typhlocybae per il controllo biologico di Metcalfa pruinosa in Campania [Neodrynus typhlocybae for biological control of Metcalfa pruinosa in Campania]. Informatore Agrario 60(47): 55-58

Lauterer, P. 2002. Citrus flatid planthopper, Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae), a new pest of ornamental horticulture in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science 38(4): 145-148.

Lauterer, P. and I. Malenovsky. 2002. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) introduced into the Czech Republic (Hemiptera, Flatidae). Beiträge zur Zikadenkunde 5: 10-13.

Lee H.-S. and S. W. Wilson. 2010. First Report of the Nearctic Flatid Planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) in the Republic of Korea (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Entomological News 121(5): 506-513.

Lichou, J. 2001. Metcalfa pruinosa en vergers: etude sur les degats et les moyens de protection, une action de recherche interinstituts [Metcalfa pruinosa in orchards: a study on damages and control means]. Bulletin Technique Apicole (France) 28(2): 81-82

Lucchi A. (ed.). 2000. La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani; Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera: Flatidae): biologia, morfologia, dannosita, controllo. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy.

Lucchi, A. 1994. The egg-burster of the flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 96(3): 548-552.

Lucchi, A. 2000. Interesse apistico.[Metcalfa and honey production in Italy.] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 51-65.

Lucchi, A. and E. Mazzon. 2004. Wax production in adults of planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) with particular reference to Metcalfa pruinosa (Flatidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97(6): 1294-1298.

Lucchi, A. and L. Santini. 1993. Note morfo-biologiche sugli stadi preimmaginali di Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Hemiptera, Flatidae). Frustula Entomologica (N.S.) 16(29): 175-185.

Lucchi, A. and L. Santini. 2000. Aspetti Biologici e morfologici in Metcalfa pruinosa (Say)(Homoptera Flatidae). In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp.6-8.

Lucchi, A. and L. Santini. 2002. Aspetti fisiologici e morfo-funzionali in Metcalfa pruinosa (Hom. Fulgoroidea) con riferimento agli effetti prodotti sulle produzioni agricole e sulle alberature ornamentali. Atti della Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia Rendiconti 49: 131-147.

Malausa, J.C. 2000. Esperienze di introduzione di Neodryinus typhlocybae: in Francia. In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp. 15-17.

Malausa, J.C., L. Giuge, and X. Fauvergue. 2003. Acclimatation et dispersion en France de Neodryinus typhlocybae (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae) introduit pour lutter contre Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Hemiptera, Flatidae). Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de France 108(1): 97-102.

Mammuccini, M.G. 2000. Presentasione. In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. P. 7.

Materazzi, A., E. Trioloand A. Lucchi. 1998. No evidence for the transmission of three grapevine viruses by Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea). Journal of Plant Pathology 80(2): 175.

Mazzon, L., A. Visentini, and V. Girolami. 2001. Sex ratio of European natural populations of Neodryinus typhlocybae (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), predator-parasitoid of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera: Flatidae). Frustula Entomologica 23: 30-36.

Mead, F. W. 1969. Citrus flatid planthopper, Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) Homoptera: Flatidae. Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, Entomology Circular No. 85. 2pp.

Melichar, L. 1902a. Monographie der Acanoloniiden und Flatiden (Homoptera) (Fortsetzung.). Annalen des k. k. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums 17:1-253. Plate(s): 1-9.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1938a. The Fulgorina of Barro Colorado and other parts of Panama. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 82: 277-423. Plate(s): 1-23.

Metcalf, Z.P. 1954. Homoptera from the Bahama Islands. American Museum Novitates 1698: 1-46.

Metcalf, Z.P. 1957. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 13, Flatidae and Hypochthonellidae. North Carolina State College, Raleigh, North Carolina

Metcalf, Z.P. and S.C. Bruner. 1948. Cuban Flatidae with new species from adjacent regions. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 41: 63-118.

Navrozidis, E., Z. Zartaloudis, and A. Vartholomaiou. 2009. The appearance of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) on kiwi culture and control efforts at Pierias perfecture. Italus Hortus 16(5): 240.

Olmi, M. 2000. Bio-ecologia degli imenotteri driinidi e loro impiego in programmi di lotta biologica.[Biology and ecology of dryinid wasps and their use in biological control (Hymenoptera Dryinidae)] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 93-117.

Olmi, M. 2000. I Driinidi e la loro utilizzazione in lotta biologica: problemi e prospettive. In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp. 27-34.

Orosz, A. and Z. Der. 2004. Beware of the spread of the leafhopper species Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830). Novenyvedelem 40(3): 137-141. [Hungarian]

Pandolfo, F.M. 2000. Esperienze di controllo biologico: il progetto toscano. In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 89-92.

Pantaleoni, R.A. 1989. Modalita d'invasione di un nuovo areale in Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Auchenorrhyncha, Flatidae). [Ways of invasion of a new area by Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Auchenorrhyncha, Flatidae)]. Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia dell'Universita degli Studi di Bologna 43: 1-8.

Pons, X., B. Lumbierres, S. Garcia, and P.L. Manetti. 2002. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera: Flatidae), ?una plaga potencial de plantas ornamentales en espacios verdes urbanos de Cataluna? Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal Plagas 28(2): 217-222.

Preda, C. and M. Skolka. 2011. Range Expansion of Metcalfa pruinosa (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) in Southeastern Europe. Ecologia Balkanica 3(1): 79-87.

Sacchetti, A. Guidotti and Braccini. 2000. Impiego di Neodryinus typhlocybae in Toscana.[Neodryinus typhlocybae in Tuscany: two years after initial introduction.] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 131-159.

Sala, A. and S. Foschi. 2000. Allevanmento e distribuzione de Neodryinus typhlocybae in Italia.[Rearing and distribution of the dryinid wasp Neodryinus typhlocybae into Italy] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 119-130.

Santini, L. 1991. Sulla comparsa in Toscana dell'omottero flatide neartico Metcalfa pruinosa (Say). Frustula Entomologica 12: 67-70.

Santini, L. 2000. Considerazional conclusive. In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 159-163.

Santini, L. and A. Lucchi. 1994. Su alcuni aspetti morfologici e biologici della riproduzione in Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera, Flatidae). Frustula Entomologica 17(30): 185-197.

Santini, L. and A. Lucchi. 2000. Aspetti biologici e morfo-funzionali.[Biological and morpho-functional aspects in Metcalfa pruinosa (Say).] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 29-50.

Say, T. 1830a. Descriptions of new North American hemipterous insects, belonging to the first family of the section Homoptera of Latreille. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 6: 235-244.

Schaum, H. R. 1850a. Fulgorellae. Allegemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Kunste in alnhaberischen folge von Genannten Schriftstellern bearbeitet und herausgegeben von I. S. Ersch und I. G. Gruber mit Kupfern und Charten. Erster Section A -G. 51:58-73.

Strauss, G. 2009. Host range testing of the Nearctic beneficial parasitoid Neodryinus typhlocybae. BioControl 54(2): 163-171.

Strauss, G. 2010. Pest risk analysis of Metcalfa pruinosa in Austria. Journal of Pest Science 83(4): 381-390.

Tremblay, E. and R. Priore. 1994. La Metcalfa pruinosa e giunta in Campania. Informatore Agrario 50(34): 69-71.

Virant-Doberlet, M. and I. Žežlina. 2007. Vibrational Communication of Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Flatidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100(1): 73-82.

Weber, B.C. and S.W. Wilson. 1981. Seasonal and vertical distributions of planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) within a black walnut plantation. Great Lakes Entomologist 14(2): 71-75.

Wilson, S.W. and A. Lucchi. 2000. Aspetti sistematici, corologici ed ecologici.[Notes on systematics, distribution and ecology of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say).] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 13-28.

Wilson, S.W. and A. Lucchi. 2001. Distribution and ecology of Metcalfa pruinosa and associated planthoppers in North America (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Atti della Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia, Rendiconti Anno 49: 121-130.

Wilson, S.W. and A. Lucchi. 2007. Feeding activity of the flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 80(2): 175-178.

Wilson, S.W. and J.E. McPherson. 1980. A list of host plants of the Illinois Acanaloniidae and Flatidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 73(4): 21-29.

Wilson, S.W. and J.E. McPherson. 1981. Life histories of Anormenis septentrionalis, Metcalfa pruniosa, and Ormenoides venusta with descriptions of immature stages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 74(3): 299-311.

Wilson, S.W. and L.B. O'Brien. 1987. A survey of planthopper pests of economically important plants (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). In: M.R. Wilson and L.R. Nault,(eds.). Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Economic Importance : Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA, 28th July-1st August 1986. CAB International Institute of Entomology. Pp. 343-360.

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