Multiple Choice (100 points). Please indicate the best answer to each question by placing an "X" over the appropriate letter preceding the correct answer.
1. The purpose of the vacuole in the plant cell is to
C) store waste D) store waste and serve as a reservoir.
Transportation and communication between cells is via the
C) nucleus D) plasma desmata.
3. Which of the following does not arise from a proplastid:
A) chloroplasts B) chromoplasts
C) leucoplast D) mitochondria.
4. Glycolosis is that portion of respiration in which
A) CO2 is produced B) glucose enters
C) a great deal of ATP is produced B) O2 is consumed.
5. Fatty acids (lipids) are introduced into respiration metabolism as
A) Acetyl-CoA B) glucose
C) pyruvate D) a three carbon compound
6. Glucose is the only sugar that moves directly into glycolosis. How are other sugars metabolized?
A) They are interconverted into glucose B) They can not be metabolized
C) They have a separate pathway D) Plants only produce glucose and need not metabolize other sugars
7. The primary function of the Kreb’s cycle is to
A) break down glucose to pyruvate B) convert C-C bonds to ATP and NADH2
C) inter-convert NADH2 to ATP D) produce ethanol via anaerobic respiration.
8. CO2 is derived primarily in
A) electron transport B) glycolosis
C) Kreb’s cycle D) equally in all processes
9. The proteins associated with oxidative phosphorylation are located in
A) cristae B) grana
C) stroma D) the outer mitocondrial membrane.
10. The ATPase responsible for ATP synthesis is driven by
A) a H+ gradient B) FAD
C) NAD D) NADH2.
11. The primary role of accessory pigments is
A) absorb addition light energy B) add to the fall color of the leaf
C) add vitamins to the leaf D) protect chlorophyll.
12. Which color of light provides the most energy to photosynthesis?
A) blue B) green
C) red D) yellow
13. Cyclic photosynthesis refers to excited electrons from
A) photosystem I producing ATP B) photosystem I producing NADPH
C) photosystem II producing ATP D) photosystem II producing NADPH.
14. NADPH is utilized in the chloroplast by
A) converting it to ATP B) converting it to NADH2
C) using it in the light reactions D) utilizing it in the light independent reactions .
15. How many CO2 must be incorporated in the Calvin cycle to produce 1 glucose
A) 2 B) 4
C) 6 D) 12
16. Photorespiration is the process by which
A) CO2 is fixed B) O2 is fixed
C) CO2 is produced in the light D) O2 is produced in the light
A) at night B) during the day
C) directly in glucose D) into 2 - 3C intermediates
18. The electron transport of the light dependant reactions occurs in the
A) cristae B) grana
C) matrix D) stroma.
19. GA promotes
A) cell division B) fruit ripening
A) ABA B) cytokinin
C) GA D) IAA.
21. Water stress is mediated by
A) ABA B) cytokinin
C) GA D) IAA.
A) auxin degradation B) auxin synthesis in the dark
C) auxin transport to the dark side D) change in the auxin sensitivity.
23. The effect of auxin in geotropism
A) stimulates elongation B) inhibits elongation
C) does not effect elongation D) is organ specific.
24. Which of the following is essential for a short day plant to flower
A) a short day B) a long day
C) a short night D) a long night.
25. If you wish to prevent flowering in a short day plant, you can interrupt
A) the dark period B) the light period
C) both the dark and light D) either the dark or the light.
26. The critical photoperiod indicates the
A) amount of dark B) the maximum amount of light
C) minimum amount of light D) the point when flower initation occurs.
27. A quiescent seed is one that requires which of the following to germinate?
A) an appropriate environment B) a warm period
C) scarification D) stratification
28. During stratification
A) embryos grow B) inhibitors are reduced
C) IAA increases D) no changes occur.
29. The result of meiosis is
A) 2 – 2n cells B) 4 – 2n cells
C) 2 – 1n cells D) 2 – 1n cells.
30. Mitosis occurs in
A) all cells B) flower cells only
C) reproductive cells only D) somatic cells.
31. The stage of mitosis in which the chromosome first become visible is
A) anaphase B) metaphase
C) prophase D) telophase
32. Transcription is the process by which
A) amino acids are joined together B) DNA is convert to mRNA
C) DNA is converted to RNA D) mRNA is paired with tRNA.
33. DNA is replicated
A) in one direction only B) in different directions either stand
C) in both direction on the same strand D) orientation is not an issue
34. The ribosome is the site of
A) DNA synthesis B) protein synthesis
C) RNA synthesis D) tRNA synthesis.
A) AABB B) AaBB
C) AABb D) AaBb
36. If two genes always segregate together during meiosis they are considered
A) co-dominant B) dominant
C) linked D) recessive.
37. A pink flowerer plant is self pollinated and results in 73 red, 147 pink and 81 white. This gene exhibits
A) dihybrid incomplete dominance B) dihybrid, linked genes
C) mono hybrid, complete dominance D) mono hybrid, incomplete dominance.
38. The 9:3:3:1 dihybrid ratio is the result of
A) a cross between homozygous plants B) incomplete dominance
C) independently segregating genes D) linked genes.
39. An important driving force behind natural selection is
A) dominance B) intervention by breeders
C) linkage D) variation
40. Plants within a species that grow together but flower at different times is an example of
A) competition B) natural selection
C) reproductive isolation D) ecotypes
41. Osmosis requires
A) a difference in concentrations B) a living cell
C) a membrane D) application of pressure.
42. The typical plant cell submerged in concentrated salt ( NaCl ) water will
A) gain water B) lose Na
C) lose water D) not change.
43. The movement of substance in and out of the cell is based
A) solely on size B) solely on charge
C) both size and charge D) the selectivity and transport of the membrane.
A) cools leaves B) wastes water
C) moves water through phloem tissue D) is controlled by root pores.
Stomates close in response to
A) a pumping action in the root B) a concentration gradient
C) cohesion-tension D) root pressure.
47. Water movement in the xylem occurs primarily in the
A) newly formed vessels B) old vessels
C) pith D) all xylem
48. Phloem transport in early spring (as leaves emerge) typically moves from
A) the leaves to the roots B) the roots to the leaves
C) the leaves to the shoot tip D) the stems to the leaves.
49. Carbohydrates transported from source to sink move
A) along the transpiration stream B) along a concentration gradient
C) due to a potassium pump D) in the xylem
50. Movement in the phloem is
A) from top to roots B) from roots to top
C) laterally D) source to sink.
51. Which of the following is typically the most limiting element for plant growth
A) iron B) nitrogen
C) phosphorous D) potasium.
52. Soil pH impacts plant growth since
A) acidity burning roots B) basic soils bleaching leaves
C) neutral soil provide too little hydrogen D) pH impact nutrient availability.
53. How does a plant accumulate ions from the soil, which has a lower concentration than the plant?
A) applies pressure to push ions into the cell B) applies tension to pull the ions into the cell
C) expends energy to transport ions against D) roots grow around soil particles concentration gradient trapping the ions in a cell
54. On a bag of fertilizer the numbers 10-10-10 refer to
A) nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous B) potassium, phosphorous, nitrogen
C) potassium, nitrogen, phosphorous D) phosphorous, nitrogen, potassium.
55. If you have a 10,000 sq. ft. lawn and a soil test recommendation for 2.5 lbs. N/1000 sq. ft., how many lbs.of a 20-10-5 fertilizer must you apply?
A) 125 lbs. of fertilizer B) 12.5 lbs. of fertilizer
C) 250 lbs. of fertilizer D) 25 lbs. of fertilizer
56. The clay particles in a soil increase the
A) aeration B) drainage
C) nutrient availability D) pH.
57. CEC is a measure of
A) acidity B) fertility
C) porosity D) water holding capacity
58. A soil that is at field capacity has
A) all pore filled with water B) large pores drained
C) large and small pores drained D) all pore drained.
59. Hypigeous germination is defined by the
A) cotyledons emerging from the soil B) cotyledons remaining below the soil
C) epicotyl emerging from the soil D) epicotyl remaining below the soil
60. The first step in seed germination regardless of the viability of the seed is
A) enzyme activation B) imbibition
C) plumule emergence D) radicle emergence
61. A warm period is necessary in some seeds prior to germination for
A) breakdown of inhibitors B) embryo maturation
C) production of ABA D) production of GA.
62. The sperm nuclei of the pollen fuse with which of the following nuclei:
A) antipodals B) polar
C) synergids D) tube nucleus.
63. Mycorrhizae increase the plants ability to absorb
A) many different nutrients B) water
C) air D) calcium.
64. An endomycorrhizal arbuscle is a
A) highly branched structure inside the plant B) highly branched structure outside the plant
C) a layer of hyphae surround the root D) a layer of hyphae surround a cell.
Parasitic plants are
A) dependant on organic material in the soil
B) dependant on their host for
C) dependant on their host for water D) totally dependant on their host.
Plants that fix nitrogen utilize what material as a starting point?
C) nitrogen gas D) organic material.
A late successional plant is one that tolerates
C) drought D) wide climatic variation.
68. Allelopathy is a method by which plants limit competition from
A) animals B) diseases
C) insects D) plants.
69. An example of a plant product that kills insects is
A) phytoalexin B) leghemoglobin
C) pyrethrum D) juglone
70. The nutrient content in a stable ecosystem
A) fluctuates widely B) tends to increase
C) tends to decrease D) relatively stable
71. A coniferous evergreen out competes deciduous trees in northern climates since it
A) grows faster B) grows taller
C) has a narrow shape D) has needle-like leaves.
72. The calyx is composed of
A) anthers B) petals
C) sepals D) stamens.
compound ovary is formed by the fusion of multiple
A) anther B) carpels
C) ovaries D) ovules.
74. Which of the following terms is descriptive of leaf apex
A) acuminate B) compound
C) ovate D) serrate.
Which of the following terms is descriptive of leaf margin
C) ovate D) serrate.