Genus Flatormenis Melichar 1923
Subfamily Flatinae Spinola, 1839
Tribe Nephesini Melichar, 1923
Genus Flatormenis Melichar 1923.
Type species (in original combination): Ormenis squamulosa Fowler 1900.
Distribution: Widespread in Nearctic and continental Neotropical regions (1 species currently assigned to this genus from Pakistan).
There are 14 species currently assigned to this genus:
1 Flatormenis albescens (Fowler 1900:57) - Mexico (Jalisco), Panama
2 Flatormenis albipennis (Van Duzee, 1907: 38) - Jamaica
Flatormenis chloris (Melichar 1902:13) see Flatormenis proxima
3 Flatormenis dolobrata (Fowler 1900:56) - Mexico (Morales, Guerrero)
Flatormenis duplicata Caldwell, 1951 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951); see Ilesia Fennah
4 Flatormenis fumata (Schmidt 1904:365) - Equador
5 Flatormenis fusca (Melichar 1902:75) - Mexico
6 Flatormenis glaucescens (Walker, 1858: 118) - Dominican Republic
7 Flatormenis griseoalba Fowler 1900:57 - Guatemala, Panama, Peru
F. gliseoalba missp.
8 Flatormenis inferior (Fowler 1900:58) - Mexico (Morelos, Veracruz, Tabasco), Costa Rica
Flatormenis nefuscata Caldwell, 1951 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951); see Ilesia Fennah
Flatormenis nefuscata amplata Caldwell, 1951 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951); see Ilesia Fennah
9 Flatormenis panamensis (Schmidt 1904:364) - Panama
10 Flatormenis proxima (Walker 1851:462) - USA: AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA; CAN: ON, QC
= Poeciloptera proxima Walker, 1851: 459.
= Ormenis proxima (Walker, 1851); comb. by Stål 1862: 490.
= Ormenis chloris Melichar, 1902: 89.
= Anormenis chloris (Melichar, 1902); comb. by Melichar 1923: 69; see also O’Brien 1985: 660.
= Anormenis septentrionalis auct. (nec Spinola, 1839); syn. by O’Brien 1985: 657-660.
= Flatormenis chloris (Melichar, 1902); comb. by Medler 2003: 593 (from Anormenis Melichar 1923).
= Flatormenis chloris (Melichar, 1902); syn in Bartlett et al. in press.
11 Flatormenis pseudomarginata (Muir, 1924: 469) - Puerto Rico
12 Flatormenis saucia (Van Duzee, 1912)
= Ormenis saucia Van Duzee, 1912a: 498.
= Flatormenis saucia (Van Duzee, 1912a); comb. by Bartlett et al. in press.
= Ormenis yumana Ball, 1933b: 148; syn. by Bartlett et al. in press.
13 Flatormenis squamulosa (Fowler 1900:57) - Mexico (Guerrero, Yucatan, Morelos), Guatemala, Trinidad
Flatormenis stylata Caldwell, 1951 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951); see Ilesia Fennah
14 Flatormenis tarnabensis Ahmed & Rao, 1986 - Pakistan
Nomenclatural note on Flatormenis proxima - this species was for many years called "Anormenis septentrionalis", however O'Brien (1985) found that Spinola's type specimen was not this species and the name had been misapplied. O'Brien (1985) determined that the correct species concept was that of Anormenis chloris (Melichar). Subsequently, Medler (2003) referred the species to Flatormenis. Most recently (Bartlett et al. on press) found that F. chloris was a synonym of F. proxima (Walker).
The name 'Anormenis chloris' persists in popular - and sometimes technical - usage. It is sometimes called the 'northern flatid planthopper'.
List compiled primarily from FLOW (Bourgoin 2013), also Metcalf (1957) and an unpublished list by Lois O'Brien.
Several common species, but not usually of major importance, although F. proxima is known to feed on a variety of ornamental and agricultural plants. Flatormenis proxima can be important on walnut. Flatormenis (esp. proxima) may occur in large numbers, but do little apparent damage to plants and have not been directly implicated in plant disease transmission (although this has not been excluded either). Wax deposits of immatures on ornamental plants may be unsightly.
Known host plants:
[More to come]
Flatormenis proxima is polyphagous; Juglans nigra L.(Juglandaceae, black walnut), Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch (Betulaceae, hophornbeam), Quercus velutina Lam. (Fagaceae, black oak), Ulmus rubra Muhl. (Ulmaceae, slippery elm), Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C.K. Schneid. (Moraceae, osage orange), Morus rubra L. (Moraceae, red mulberry), Rumex obtusifolius L. (bitter dock, Polygonaceae),
Phytolacca americana L. (American pokeweed, Phytolaccaceae), Liriodendron tulipifera L. (tuliptree, Magnoliaceae), Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal (Annonaceae, pawpaw), Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (Lauraceae, sassafras), Liquidambar styraciflua L.(Hamamelidaceae, sweetgum), Platanus occidentalis L. (Platanaceae, American sycamore), and 30 more in Wilson & McPhearson (1981)
There are no keys to species - it is best to use tails for species confirmation. Flatormenis has a strongly upcurved aedeagus. It is likely that the genus needs revision.
Compared to the U.S. Fauna:
Wings broad distally (not Selizini), held parallel to body (not Flatoidinae), frons not produced conically (vs. Siphanta); body color varied - often green (e.g., F. proxima), but may include brown, grey or red shades (e.g., F. saucia, F. squamulosa) or grey (F. panamensis); forewing with 2 submarginal veins separating 2 rows of cells at least at wing apex; forewings truncate distally.
Flatormenis proxima is probably the most abundant flatid in the eastern U.S. Often confused in the east with Ormenoides venusta, which is smaller with forewings rounded at apex, and the frons is wider in Flatormenis. In the western U.S., Flatormenis saucia is the most common and widespread flatid species. This species varies in color (greenish to orangish), but is often recognized by the orangish mesonotum. Flatormenis squamulosa and F. inferior are reported here based on specimens identified by Medler at TAMU. Flatormenis squamulosa is similar in size to F. proxima, but has a brownish cast. Flatormenis inferior is a smaller species. There is at least one undescribed Flatormenis in Arizona (and possibly 1 in California).
Flatormenis proxima (as F. chloris Image by Jon Yuschock, Bugwood.org)
Flatormenis proxima (David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org) (mis-attributed to Ormenoides at the moment)
Flatormenis proxima (Photo by Kimberley Shropshire, Dept. of Entomology, University of Delaware)
Flatormenis saucia (Photo by Kimberley Shropshire, Dept. of Entomology, University of Delaware)
Illustrations of Genitalia (More will be posted as I encounter them)
Flatormenis albescens from Metcalf 1938
Flatormenis griseoalba from Metcalf 1938
Flatormenis panamensis drawings from Metcalf 1938; photo from BOLD, CNC/BIO Photography Group, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario
Flatormenis pseudomarginata from Muir 1924
Websites: Flatormenis is not present on Bugguide but F. proxima (as chloris) is included with Anormenis (some of the images are actually Ormenoides); Flatormenis are also under Anormenis in Discover Life here.
Flatormenis can be commonly collected by general inspection, sweeping or beating of woody vegetation. They are frequently conspicuous on their hosts.
Molecular resources: Data for Flatormenis is available on Barcode of life (Under Anormenis) for F. chloris (as. A. chloris and A. proxima); and for Flatormenis panamaensis (although the genus is misspelled). Data for Flatormenis does not appear to be available on Genbank.
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