Genus Stobaera Stal, 1859
Distribution: Mostly North and Central America, also Caribbean; uncommonly South America; 1 species introduced to Australia.
Type species (in original combination): Delphax concinna Stal, 1854: 246.
There are 11 described species in this genus. Stobaera was revised by Kramer (1973) and distribution records prior to this revision should be interpreted with care.
Stobaera affinis Van Duzee, 1909: 199 - USA: Florida.
Stobaera azteca Muir, 1913: 242 - Mexico (Guerrero, Morelos, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz), Guatemala, Nicaragua.
Stobaera bilobata Van Duzee, 1914: 44 - USA: California.
Stobaera caldwelli Kramer, 1973: 383 - USA: Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, Utah; Mexico (Baja California North, Sonora).
Stobaera concinna (Stål, 1854: 246) - USA: Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, Utah, Mexico (Oaxaca, Sonora, Veracruz); Cuba, Hispaniola (also reported Illinois and New Jersey, probably in error); specimens reported as Stobaera sp. by Fennah, 1959 are probably this species; introduced to Australia (Queensland) (see Crutwell-McFadyen 1992).
= Stobaera minuta Osborn 1905: 376; syn. by Kramer 1973: 388-391.
= Stobaera bahamensis Metcalf, 1954c: 6-8; syn. by O’Brien 1985: 657.
Stobaera giffardi Van Duzee, 1917: 313 - USA: California, Oregon
Stobaera granulosa (Fowler, 1905: 132) - Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca, Veracruz), Guatemala, ?Ecuador.
Stobaera koebeli Muir, 1913: 242 - Mexico (Federal District, Morelos, Veracruz), Guatemala.
Stobaera muiri Kramer, 1973: 386 - USA: California.
Stobaera pallida Osborn, 1905 - USA: Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New York, North Carolina, New Jersey, Virginia; Mexico (Federal District, Mexico, Puebla).
Stobaera tricarinata (Say, 1825: 337) - Probably all of the conterminous United States (specifically recorded from Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia); Canada: British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec; Mexico (Baja California North); also reported, probably erroneously, from Guatemala, Nicaragua, Cuba, Puerto Rico.
There may be additional, undescribed species of Stobaera in Central or potentially South America.
Economic importance: Limited, although reported from sunflower and Stobaera concinna used for biocontrol in Australia.
Confirmed hosts are all Asteraceae, primarily Ragweeds (Ambrosia spp.).
Stobaera affinis - Ambrosia sp. (ragweed).
Stobaera bilobata - Hazardia squarrosa (Hook. & Arn.) Greene var. squarrosa (sawtooth goldenbush; as Haplopappus squarrosus Hook. & Arn.).
Stobaera caldwelli - Ambrosia spp., Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray (burrobrush), Bebbia juncea (Benth.) Greene (sweetbush), Trixis californica Kellogg (American threefold).
Stobaera concinna - Ambrosia spp., Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Santa Maria feverfew).
Stobaera giffardi - Artemesia sp. (sagebrush).
Stobaera muiri - Ambrosia spp.
Stobaera pallida - Baccharis halimifolia L.(eastern baccharis).
Stobaera tricarinata - Ambrosia spp., Helianthus argophyllus Torr. & A. Gray (silverleaf sunflower).
Plant names (including common names) according to The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov)
Sources of host information Wilson et al. (1994) and citations (see esp. Kramer, 1973; Goeden and Ricker 1974a, b; 1975; 1986, 1989), Calvert et al. 1987).
Among North American taxa, Stobaera is distinctive in having flattened antennae, a cream-colored body, a bicolored parallel-sided frons (bowed in S. pallida) with the median carina forked at the fastigium, and patterned wings. The most similar genus in North America is Bostaera, which (among other differences) has a much broader frons with the median carina conspicuously forked below the fastigium. Neoperkinsiella and the introduced Perkinsiella also have flattened antennae. Both are larger with different genitalia. In Neoperkinsiella, there are a pair of processes on segment 10 and the shape of the parameres are quite different. Perkinsiella has the median carina of the frons forked below the fastigium and has processes on the ventral margin of the opening of the pygofer. There is also at least one undescribed genus that I am aware of from South and Central America with flattened antennae with a similar build to Stobaera.
Species of Stobaera can be identified with Kramer (1973 [the key is here - someday I will reproduce it on this page]). Most species are best identified by the male genitalia, but al least some of them can be identified by females based on range and color patterns, although Central American female specimens can present difficulties.
Key to species of Stobaera slightly modified from Kramer (1973)
1. Lateral carinae of frons distinctly bowed; frons tan, marked with creamy flecks. Atlantic Coast, Florida, Mexico – Stobaera pallida Osborn
1’. Lateral carinae of frons straight or nearly so; frons not marked as above … 2
2. Pro- and mesonotum strongly bicolored, central area yellow to orange and lateral areas fuscus to black. Southwestern US – Stobaera caldwelli Kramer
2’. Pro- and mesonotum not strongly bicolored, general color yellowish brown to fuscus with variable shading … 3
3. Style with lateral margin near apex smoothly rounded; Southern California - Stobaera bilobata Van Duzee
3’. Style with lateral margin near apex angular or angularly produced … 4
4. Style with keel near base …5
4’. Style without keel near base … 6
5. Antennae, eyes, and interocular portion of frons predominately fuscus to black; found on silver beachweed, Ambrosia chamissonis, in California – Stobaera muiri Kramer
5’. Antennae, eyes, and interocular portion of frons predominately tan to medium brown; found on Ambrosia confertiflora and widespread – Stobaera concinna (Stal)
6. Style with outer apical angulation much shorter than inner apical angulation …7
6.’ Style with outer apical angulation equal to or longer than inner apical angulation; Mexico, Central America … 9
7. Style broadest across middle with inner basal projection minute; USA: Calif., Oregon – Stobaera giffardi Van Duzee
7’. Style broadest across apex with inner basal projection long … 8
8. Inner basal projection of style slender, acute apically, and appearing to arise near base; aedeagus broad, stout, and acute or subacute at apex; Widespread – Stobaera tricarinata (Say)
8.’ Inner basal projection of style not so slender, blunt or subacute apically, and appearing to arise above base; aedeagus elongate and broadly capitate at apex; Florida - Stobaera affinis Van Duzee
9. Process of anal segment in posterior view broad at tip, bearing 1 or more acute projections on each side of central prolongation – Stobaera granulosa (Fowler)
9’. Process of anal segment in posterior view narrow at tip, lacking acute projections or with only exceedingly minute ones on each side of acute central prolongation … 10
10. Process of anal segment in posterior view slender and without distinct preapical constriction, in lateral view not sharply bent ventrally - Stobaera azteca Muir
10’. Process of anal segment in posterior view broad with distinct preapical constriction, in lateral view sharply bent ventrally - Stobaera koebelei Muir
Stobaera concinna (note vitta on mesothorax)
Websites: Stobaera on ...
Hemipterans of North Carolina (the link is to S. tricarinata)
Calvert, P. D., S. W. Wilson and J. H. Tsai. 1987. Stobaera concinna (Homoptera: Delphacidae): Field Biology, laboratory rearing and descriptions of immature stages. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 95(1): 91-98.
Crawford, D. L. 1914a. A contribution toward a monograph of the homopterous insects of the family Delphacidae of North and South America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 46: 557-640, plus 6 plates.
Fennah, R. G. 1959. Delphacidae from the Lesser Antilles (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 8: 245-265.
Fowler, W. W. 1905. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). Biologia Centrali-Americana 1: 125-139.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1974a. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia acanthicarpa, in southern California. Environmental Entomology 3: 827-834.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1974b. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia chamissonis, in southern California. Environmental Entomology 3: 835-839.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1975. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia confertiflora, in southern California. Environmental Entomology 4: 301-306.
Goeden, R. D. and D .W. Ricker. 1976a. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia dumosa, in southern California. Environmental Entomology 5: 45-50.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1976b. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia chenopodiifolia, A. eriocentra, and A. ilicifolia southern California. Environmental Entomology 5: 923-930.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1976c. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia psilostachya, in southern California. Environmental Entomology 4: 1169-1177.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1986a. The phytophagous insect fauna of the desert shrub Hymenoclea salsola in southern California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79: 39-47.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1986b. The phytophagous insect faunas of the two most common native Cirsium thistles, C. californicum and C. proteanum, in southern California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79: 953-962.
Kramer, J. P. 1973. Revision of the American planthoppers of the genus Stobaera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) with new distributional data and host plant records. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 75: 379-402. (Here is a link to this paper on Archive.Org)
McClay, A. S. 1983. Biology and host-specificity of Stobaera concinna (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), a potential biocontrol agent for Parthenium hysterophorus L. Folia Entomologica Mexicana 56: 21-30.
Crutwell-McFadyen, R. 1992. Biological control against parthenium weed in Australia. Crop Protection 11: 400-407. (Introduction of Stobaera concinna to Australia)
Metcalf, Z. P. 1954. Homoptera from the Bahama Islands. American Museum Novitates 1698: 1-46.
Muir, F. A. G. 1913. On some new Fulgoroidea. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 2: 237-269.
Muir, F.A.G. 1926b. Contributions to our knowledge of South American Fulgoroidea (Homoptera). Part I. The Family Delphacidae. Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association, Entomological Series, Bulletin 18:1-51, plates 1-5.
O’Brien, L. B. 1985. New synonymies and combinations in New World Fulgoroidea (Achilidae, Delphacidae, Flatidae, Fulgoridae: Homoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78: 657-662.
Osborn, H. 1905. Descriptions of new North American Fulgoridae. Ohio Naturalist 5: 373-376.
Palmer, W. A. 1993. On the host range of the delphacid planthopper Stobaera pallida Osborn (Homoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 95(2): 241-244. (here is a link to this paper on archive.org)
Reimer, N. J. and R. D. Goeden. 1981. Descriptions of immature stages of Stobaera tricarniata (Say) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Delphacidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 57:4 29-433.
Reimer, N. J. and R. D. Goeden. 1981. Life history of the delphacid planthopper Stobaera tricarniata (Say) on western ragweed, Ambrosia psilostachya DeCandolle, in southern California (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Delphacidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 58(2): 105-108.
Say, T. 1825. Descriptions of new Hemipterous insects collected in the expedition to the Rocky Mountains, performed by order of Mr. Calhoun, Secretary of War, under command of Major Long. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4: 307-345.
Stål, C. 1854. Nya Hemiptera. Ofversigt af Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 11: 231-255.
Stål, C. 1859. Novae quaedam Fulgorinorum formae speciesque insigniores. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 3: 313-327.
Van Duzee, E. P. 1909. Observation of some Hemiptera taken in Florida in the spring of 1908. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 9: 149-230.
Van Duzee, E. P. 1914. A preliminary list of the Hemiptera of San Diego County, California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 2: 1-57.
Van Duzee, E. P. 1917. Report upon a collection of Hemiptera made by Walter M. Giffard in 1916 and 1917, chiefly in California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) 7: 249-318.