Genus Prokelisia Osborn, 1902
Genus Prokelisia Osborn, 1902
Distribution: Primarily on the east and west coasts of North America and the Caribbean (but found wherever Spartina occurs; Prokelisia salina is western in non-coastal situations); probably in Mexico; introduced into England.
Type species (in original combination): Prokelisia setigera Osborn, 1905, Junior synonym of Megamelus marginatus Van Duzee, 1897.
Generic synonym: Prokelisoidea McDermott, 1952: 57 (type species Kelisia salina Ball, 1902; synonym by Wilson, 1982: 533).
Five valid species as follows:
Prokelisia carolae Wilson, 1982 - USA: California; Canada: British Columbia
Prokelisia crocea (Van Duzee, 1897) - Widespread in eastern North America from Gulf coast states to southern Canada
= Kelisia crocea Van Duzee, 1897: 233.
= Stenocranus crocea (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Osborn & Ball 1897: 233.
= Liburnia crocea (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Beamer 1945a: 100.
= Prokelisia crocea (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Oman 1947: 220.
Prokelisia dolus Wilson, 1982 - USA: Widespread in eastern North America from Gulf coast states to southern Canada; also California
Prokelisia marginata (Van Duzee, 1897) - Widespread in eastern North America from Gulf coast states to southern Canada; Also adventive to England, France, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Belgium.
= Megamelus marginatus Van Duzee, 1897: 234.
= Prokelsia setigera Osborn, 1905: 373; syn. by Wilson 1982a: 537-539.
= Megamelus setigerus (Osborn, 1905); comb. by Crawford 1914: 631.
= Prokelisia marginatus (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Van Duzee 1916a; 83.
= Megamelus marginata (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Van Duzee 1917b: 765.
Prokelisia salina (Ball, 1902) - Widespread in Central and Western North America, especially southwest but north to Nunavut; also Bahamas (Abaco Cays, Andros, Exuma Cays, Eleuthera, New Providence).
= Kelisia salina Ball, 1902b: 264.
= Megamelus salina (Ball, 1902b); comb. by Crawford 1914: 631.
= Megamelanus frontalis Crawford, 1914: 593.
= Megamelus constrictus Crawford, 1914: 610.
= Liburnia constricta (Crawford, 1914); comb. by Metcalf 1923: 148.
= Prokelisia constricta (Crawford, 1914); ); comb. by Muir & Giffard 1924: 10.
= Megamelanus salina (Ball, 1902b); comb. by Beamer 1945a: 100.
= Prokelisoidea frontalis (Crawford, 1914); syn. by McDermott 1952: 58-59.
= Prokelisoidea salina (Ball, 1902b); comb. by McDermott 1952: 57.
= Megamelanus frontalis Crawford, 1914: 593; syn. by Wilson 1982a: 540-542.
= Megamelus constrictus Crawford, 1914: 610; syn. by Wilson 1982a: 540-542.
= Megamelus constrictus minutus Crawford, 1914: 610; syn. by Wilson 1982a: 540-542.
Prokelisia dolus - Spartina alterniflora Loisel. (smooth cordgrass)
Potentially useful as a biocontrol agent (viz. Prokelisia marginata) of Spartina anglica (English cordgrass), in Washington where this grass has been introduced (Wu et al. 1999) (see Daehler and Strong 1996).
Prokelisia marginata has been inadvertently introduced to England.
Used extensively as a ecological model over nearly 30 years by Denno and colleagues (see Eubanks et al. 2011), particularly as a model for tritrophic ecological interactions and regarding between habitat and life history parameters.
Wilson (1982) most recently revised the genus and Heady and Wilson (1990) provide features of female gentaila. See also Denno et al. (1987).
Prokelisia is frequently abundant where in the vicinity of its host plant, although individuals can be collected at lights some distance from their expected habitat.
Except for Prokelisia crocea, members of this genus are very slightly dorsoventrally flattened, pale colored, with dark infuscations along the carinae of the frons.
Prokelisia crocea is distinctive in being larger than most members of the genus and having orangish markings on the face and thorax. Prokelisia salina tends to be western and is more likely than some of the other species to be found inland; it can be separated from its congeners be the parallel-sided frons and diverging parameres. Prokelisia carolae is a local species that is infrequently encountered. Prokelisia marginata and P. dolus are quite similar and are found in broadly sympatric ranges. Prokelisia dolus tends to have a much broader frons near the frontoclypeal suture than does P. marginata, but this difference is not always satisfactory. More definitive is to view the male pygofer from lateral view (see figs. 7 and 10 in Wilson 1982), in Prokelisia dolus the parameres are inflected caudally near the apex, whereas in P. marginata the apices are dorsally directed.
Genbank has molecular data for Prokelisia marginata and P. dolus (here). BOLD appears to have no barcode data for this genus. Urban et al. (2010) extracted 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, wingless, and cytochrome oxidase I from Prokelisia dolus, P. marginata, P. salina, and P. crocea for their analyses.
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