Genus Nilaparvata Distant, 1906
Pantropical, with most species in the Old World tropics.
Type species (in original combination): Nilaparavata greeni Distant, 1906: 473, a junior synonym of Delphax lugens Stal, 1854.
19 recognized species worldwide as follows:
1 Nilaparvata caldwelli Metcalf, 1955 - Puerto Rico, Belize, Hispaniola; USA: Florida, North Carolina (reports from africa need confirmation)
2 Nilaparvata gerhardi (Metcalf, 1923: 210) - USA: Illinois, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Virginia; ? Guatemala
3 Nilaparvata serrata Caldwell, 1951 - Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Cayman Islands, ? Bolivia; USA: Florida
4 Nilaparvata wolcotti Muir and Giffard, 1924 - USA: Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, Utah; Puerto Rico, Mexico
Old World (distribution records may be incomplete)
1 Nilaparvata albotristriata (Kirkaldy, 1907) - Australia
2 Nilaparvata angolensis Synave, 1959 - Angola
3 Nilaparvata bakeri (Muir, 1917) - Philippine Islands, Taiwan, Japan
4 Nilaparvata camilla Fennah, 1969 - Sudan
5 Nilaparvata castanea Huang and Ding, 1979 - China
6 Nilaparvata chaeremon Fennah, 1975 - Sri Lanka
7 Nilaparvata diophantus Fennah, 1958 - Portuguese Guinea
8 Nilaparvata lineolae Huang and Tian, 1979 - China
9 Nilaparvata lugens (Stal, 1854: 246) - Widespread in tropical and temperate Asia and Pacific Islands
10 Nilaparvata maeander Fennah, 1958 - Guinea, Sudan
11 Nilaparvata muiri China, 1925 - China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Japan, South Korea.
12 Nilaparvata myersi Muir, 1923 - New Zealand
13 Nilaparvata nigritarsis Muir, 1926 - South Africa
14 Nilaparvata seminula Melichar, 1914: 110 - Philippine Island
15 Nilaparvata terracefrons Guo and Liang, 2005 - China
Note: Some species of Nilaparvata, in particular N. lugens, have long-distance migration.
Nilaparvata lugens, N. bakeri, N. maeander and N. muiri - Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Nilaparvata gerhardi has been reported from Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.) Volkart ex Schinz & R. Keller (reported as Scirpus americana) (bulrush, a sedge - Cyperaceae)
Nilaparvata wolcotti - I have collected this species on Schoenoplectus, but I am not sure which species it was. They were found by D-vacing the base of the plant.
Of the four Nilaparvata species in the New World, none are known to be pests on economic crops, although Nilaparvata wolcotti has been recorded from sugarcane. Nilaparvata planthoppers endemic to the New World are often found at lights.
On the other hand, Nilaparvata lugens, the brown planthopper (BPH) is an important and widespread pest of rice (see ricehoppers.net). Nilaparvata lugens can reach high densities on rice, and vectors Rice Grassy Stunt Virus (RGSV), and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus (RRSV). A good recent reference on rice diseases transmitted by Nilaparvata lugens is Cabauatan et a;. (2009) (citation below).
Nilaparvata lugens has been intercepted at US ports, but so far has not become established.
Nilaparvata bakeri, N. maeander and N. muiri are also known from rice. None of these four species are known from the New World.
Other Nilaparvata on rice are of comparatively minor (or at least local) importance. Nilaparvata muiri is also a vector of Rice Grassy Stunt Virus (RGSV), Nilaparvata bakeri has also been recorded as a vector of Rice Grassy Stunt Virus (RGSV), and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus (RRSV). Photos and additional information on these species can be found here: http://naturalhistory.museumwales.ac.uk/vectors/Home.php
A good general source of information on rice planthoppers is the ricehoppers blog: http://ricehoppers.net/.
The genus Nilaparvata can be recognized by the presence of a series of teeth on the first tarsal segment of the hind leg. New World Nilaparvata were reviewed by Bartlett (2007).
Key to New World species of Nilaparvata (modified from Bartlett, 2007)
1. Aedeagus appearing bifid from base to apex, without subapical serrate flange, parameres relatively narrow, apex acute and directed dorsolaterally ... Nilaparvata caldwelli
1.’ Aedeagus not appearing bifid, with serrate flange originating on right side; parameres relatively broad, apex blunt and laterally directed... 2
2. Segment X with long processes, approximated at base, originated subdorsally; parameres in widest view broadly laterally projecting, lateral margin nearly truncate ...Nilaparvata serrata
2’. Segment X with short processes or a pair of teeth, originating dorsally; parameres in widest view with dorsal margin broad and truncate, lateral margin acutely pointed, directed sublaterally ... 3
3. Segment X processes very short, often reduced to teeth; originating somewhat medially from dorsolateral margin; parameres in widest view with dorsal margin gradually sloped upwards to a dorsolaterally directed apex ... Nilaparvata wolcotti
3’. Segment X processes longer, curved; originating from dorsolateral margin of segment X; parameres with dorsal margin truncate, lateral apex directed sublaterally ... Nilaparvata gerhardi
New World Nilaparvata are externally quite similar and are best identified by their male genitalia, in particular the shape of the parameres and aedeagus.
Nilaparvata caldwelli Metcalf, 1955 (Dorsal view and face) (Photos by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)
Nilaparvata caldwelli is the least common of the New World Nilaparvata. Additional views of this species, including the genitalia are here.
Nilaparvata gerhardi (Metcalf, 1923)
Nilaparvata gerhardi appears to be distributed in temperate eastern North America, and only doubtfully in the tropics. Additional views of this species, including genitalia are here.
Nilaparvata lugens (Stal, 1854) (not found in the New World)
Nilaparvata lugens - the brown planthopper - is not known from the New World, but has been intercepted at ports. It is a very important rice pest throughout the Old world. Externally it is very similar to the endemic New World species, but the parameres and shape of the aedeagus are quite different (see figure here).
An extension fact sheet (from the Solomon Islands) is here.
Nilaparvata serrata Caldwell, 1951
Nilaparvata serrata is found mostly in the New World tropics, but is known from Florida. The shape of the male paramere (the image on the right is a left paramere) and aedeagus are distinctive in this species and can be see in the figure here.
Nilaparvata wolcotti Muir and Giffard, 1924
Nilaparvata wolcotti is widespread in North America, and is also known from Mexico and Puerto Rico. Like all the new World Nilaparvata, it is best recognized by the male genitalia, which can be seen here.
I do not have photographs of Nilaparvata muiri or N. bakeri, but here are line drawings of the genitalia from Wilson & Claridge, 1991 (from here).
Websites: Nilaparvata on...
Bugguide (this genus not on Bugguide, oddly)
Insects of Australia (4 species)
(more to add)
There are a wide variety of molecular resources available for Nilaparvata lugens including a variety of genes, an EST library, and an ongoing genome project. From a molecular standpoint, Nilaparvata lugens is probably the best known delphacid. A link to Nilaparvata lugens molecular resources on Genbank is (should be) here. As of this writing, BOLD reports 138 specimen barcodes available here.
Resources for the remaining species of Nilaparvata are sparse, although Urban et al. (2010) sequenced four genes for Nilaparvata wolcotti (18s, 28, CO1, WG).
Selected References (always more to add and links to BHL always in progress):
Caldwell, J. S. and L. F. Martorell. 1951 [dated1950]. Review of the Auchenorynchous [sic] Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 34(2): 133-269.
Cabauatan, P. Q., R. C. Cabunagan and I. R. Choi. 2009. Rice viruses transmitted by the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål. Pp 357-368 In: K.L. Heong and B. Hardy, (eds.) . 2009. Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute.
China, W. E. 1925. The Hemiptera collected by Prof. J. W. Gregory's expedition to Yunnan, with synonymic notes on allied species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. (Ser. 9) 16: 449-485.
Cui, Y.L., J.C. He, J. Luo, F.X. Lai and Q. Fu. 2013. Host plants of Nilaparvata muiri China and N. bakeri (Muir), two sibling species of N. lugens (Stål). Chinese Journal of Rice Science 27(1): 105-110.
Distant, W. L. 1906. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Rhynchota. Vol. III. (Heteroptera-Homoptera). 3: 503 pp.
Fennah, R. G. 1958a. Fulgoroidea from West Africa. Bulletin de l'Institut Français Afrique Noire. (Ser. A) 20: 460-538.
Fennah, R. G. 1958b. Fulgoroidea of South-Eastern Polynesia. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 110(6): 117-220.
Fennah, R. G. 1969. Delphacidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) from the Sudan Republic. Acta Entomologica Fennica 26: 1-78.
Fennah, R. G. 1975. Homoptera: Fulgoroidea and Delphacidae from Ceylon. Entomologica Scandinavica 4: 79-136 .
Guo Liang-Zhen, Liang A.-P. and Jiang Guo-Mei. 2005. Four new species and a new record of Delphacidae (Hemiptera) from China. Oriental Insects 39: 161-174.
Matsumura, S. 1907. Die Cicadinen Japans. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 6: 83-116
Melichar, L. 1914. Homopteren von Java, gesammelt von herrn Edw. Jacobson. Notes from the Leyden Museum 36: 91-112.
Metcalf, Z. P. 1923. A key to the Fulgoridae of Eastern North America with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 38: 139-230.
Muir, F.A.G. 1917. Homopterous notes. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 3: 311-338.
Muir, F.A.G. 1923. New species of New Zealand Delphacidae (Homoptera). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 54: 258-259.
Muir, F.A.G. 1926. On some new and little-known Delphacidae from South Africa (Fulgoroidea, Homoptera). Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. (Ser. 9) 17: 17-35.
Muir F.A.G. and W. M. Giffard. 1924. Studies in North American Delphacidae. Bulletin. Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association Experiment Station. Division of Entomology 15: 1-53.
Stål, C. 1854. Nya Hemiptera. Ofversigt af Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 11: 231-255.
Synave, H. 1959. Fulgoroïdes nouveaux d’Afrique du Sud. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 35(30): 1-14.
A few references on Nilaparvata
Here is a PDF listing about 630 literature references, mostly on Nilapargata lugens: PDF List of Nilaparvata references.