Genus Harmalia Fennah, 1969
Genus Harmalia Fennah, 1969
= Paracorbulo Tian & Ding, 1980 is a synonym of Harmalia by Yang, 1989: 198.
Distribution: Indo-Malayan, Pacific and Australian regions; one species introduced into the US.
Type species: Sogata thoracica Distant, 1916
Recognized species (Distribution records may be incomplete):
This genus is represented by 13 species and one subspecies as follows
Harmalia anacharsis Fennah, 1969 - USA: Florida (introduced); New Caledonia, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, China
Harmalia clavata (Tian & Ding, 1980) - China
= Paracorbulo clavata Tian & Ding, 1980.
= Harmalia clavata (Tian & Ding, 1980); new combination by implication Yang, 1989: 198.
Harmalia commelinae Yang, 1989: 206 - Taiwan
Harmalia cordata Yang, 1989 - Taiwan
Harmalia heitensis (Matsumura & Ishihara, 1945) - Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippines, China
= Sogata heitensis Matsumura & Ishihara 1945: 66.
= Harmalia heitensis (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Fennah 1975: 105.
= Matutinus aculeatus Yang, 1989: 183.
= Harmalia aculeatus (Yang, 1989); comb. by Ding 2006: 558.
Harmalia aculeatus (Yang, 1989); syn by Fujinuma, 2013.
Harmalia heitensis otho Fennah, 1975 - Sri Lanka
Harmalia obscura Ding, 2006 - China
Harmalia ostorius (Kirkaldy, 1907) - Australia: Queensland
Harmalia sanguinalis (Ding and Tian 1980) - China
Harmalia separata Yang, 1989 - Taiwan
Harmalia sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara, 1945) - China, Korea, Japan
= Sogata Sirokata Matsumura & Ishihara 1945: 64.
= Chloriona (Sogatella) sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Fennah, 1956: 472.
= Paracorbulo sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Tian & Ding, 1980: 316.
= Opiconsiva sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Kwon, 1982: 6.
= Harmalia sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Yang, 1989: 204
= Opiconsiva anufrievi Kwon, 1982; syn by Fujinuma, 2013: 337.
= Opiconsiva gayasana Kwon, 1982: 6.
= Harmalia gayasana (Kwon, 1982); comb. by Ding et al. 1990; syn by Fujinuma, 2013: 337.
Harmalia tarasco Fennah, 1975 - Sri Lanka
Harmalia thoracica (Distant, 1916) - Sri Lanka, India
Harmalia tiphys Fennah, 1971 - Micronesia, Caroline Is., Palau Island, Sri Lanka
Harmalia anacharsis, H. heitensis and H. sirokata have both been reported from rice, but their expected economic importance is low. Harmalia anacharsis was introduced into Florida and was found breeding on Amazon swordplant (Echinodorus paniculatus Micheli, Alismataceae) (It is unclear whether this species continues to persist in Florida).
Harmalia anacharsis, H. heitensis and H. sirokatahave been reported from rice, but that is unlikely to be their primary host.
Harmalia anacharsis was found on Amazon swordplant (Echinodorus paniculatus Micheli, Alismataceae). in Florida.
Harmalia sirokata has also been reported from Echinochloa crusgalli (barnyard grass), Phragmites communis (common reed, Poaceae), and Persicaria thunbergii (Polygonaceae).
Harmalia commelinae is known from Commelina diffusa (climbing dayflower; Commelinaceae).Recognition
Keys to local faunas are found in Yang (1989) and Ding (2006). Two species in this genus are included in the key to species on rice in Dupo and Barrion (2009). Species occuring in Japan recently revised by Fijinama (2013).
Harmalia anacharsis (Photos by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)
From Fennah, 1969 (see below)
Harmalia sirokata from Fujinama 2013
Harmalia heitensis from Fujinama (2013)
Harmalia commelinae from Fujinama 2013
Harmalia cordata from Fujinama 2013
Genbank has Histine3, 28S and 18s available for Harmalia ostorius here. Bold does not have any barcode data for this genus. Urban et al. (2010) sequenced 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, wingless, and cytochrome oxidase I for Harmalia ostorius for their analyses.
Ding, J. H. 2006. Fauna Sinica Insecta Vol. 45 Homoptera Delphacidae. Science Press, Beijing, China.
Ding, J., F. Zhang and C. Hu. 1990. New and little known planthopper of the family Delphacidae from northeast China. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University [Nanjing Nongye Daxue Xuebao] 13(2): 46-49.
Dupo, A.L.B. and A. T. Barrion. 2009.Taxonomy and general biology of delphacid planthoppers in rice agroecosytems. Pp 3-156 In: K.L. Heong and B. Hardy, (eds). Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines.
Fennah, R. G. 1969. Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. Pacific Insects Monograph 21:1-116.
Fennah, R. G. 1971. Homoptera: Fulgoroidea Supplement. Insects Micronesia 6(8): 563-609.
Fennah, R. G. 1975. Homoptera: Delphacidae from Ceylon. Entomologica Scandinavica (Supplement) 4: 79-136. [poor photocopy]
Fujinuma, S. S. 2013. A taxonomic study of the genera Harmalia and Opiconsiva (Homoptera, Delphacidae) from Japan. Japanese Journal Of Systematic Entomology 19(2): 335-350.
Holdom, D. G., P. S. Taylor, R. J. Mackay-Wood, M. E. Ramos, and R. S. Soper. 1989. Field studies on rice planthoppers (Hom., Delphacidae) and their natural enemies in Indonesia. Journal of Applied Entomology 107(2): 118-129.
Kwon, Y. J. 1982. New and little known planthoppers of the Family Delphacidae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Korean Journal of Entomology 12: 1-11.
Matsumura S. and T. Ishihara. 1945. Species novae vel cognitae Araeopidarum imperii japonici (Hemiptera). Mushi 16: 59-82.
Tian, Li-Xin, Ding Jin-Hua and Kuoh Chung-Lin 1980. A new genus and three new species of Delphacidae from China (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Entomotaxonomia II(4): 315-319.
Wooten, C. M., S. W. Wilson, and J. H. Tsai. 1993. Descriptions of nymphs of the planthopper Harmalia anacharsis Fennah, a species new to the United States (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 101(4): 567-573.
Yang, C. T. 1989. Delphacidae of Taiwan II (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). NSC Special Publications 6: 1-334.