Hymeno = god of marriage or membrane ptera = wing
sawflies, horntails, ants, bees and wasps (hornets & yellow jackets)
chewing or chewing-lapping (proboscis)
2 pr. membraneous with first pair (mesothoracic) larger; wings hook together in flight; reduced veins but often closed "cells" evident
complete (holometabolous); larvae caterpillar-like (sawflies) or C-shaped with head capsule, seldom with legs; majority of females place eggs in special locations includin elaborate nests in social species.
distinctive 3 part body (strongly pronounced in bees and wasps with a "wasp-waist"
membrane-like unequal wings with closed cells
ovipositor of females used to lay eggs in sawflies/horntails insert eggs in hosts (parasitoids)
paralyze prey (paralyzing wasps)
protect nest (=sting) (social ants, wasps, & bees)
all males haploid and females diploid (=haplodiploidy)
many species aggregate or are social so exist together in nest or nesting area; sawflies attack vegetation, other adults frequent flowers or carbohydrate sources as scavengers including where honeydew from plant sucking insects occurs; social species exceeding numerous.
probably most beneficial order for humans; bees pollinate, provide products honey & beeswax and livelihood (=apiculture); parasitoids and paralyzing wasps very important in biological control; sawflies and horntails are plant pests; some social species sting
third largest = 130,000 species (20,000 in N. America)
Peters 397-402; haplodiploidy 182; sociality 172-183; stinging 253-255
Links to other Hymneoptera Sites