true flies - also mosquitoes, midges, no-see-ums, punkies
- piercing-sucking (biting flies)
- sponging (house fly), some reduced or non-functional
- maggots have mouthhooks
one pair (two) wings on mesothorax, rearely absent. halteres of varying size on metathorax
complete (holometabolus). Larvae frequently called maggots - they lack head capsule, are featureless (no eyes, legs, etc) and roughly elongate funnel-shaped tapering to the posterior Mouthhooks are often only visible darkening.
- 2 wings- halteres on mesothorax
- characteristic body shape of three distinct body regions and small number abdominal segments.
- antennae reduced to hair or very feathery (=plumose) in males
- maggot-like with no body features except mouth hooks
- pupa: oval with tough exoskelton covering (=puparium)
Larvae are aquatic or in semi-moist, humid conditions. Adults frequently seen at flowers or around hosts (biting flies)
Probably most harmful order to man as transmitters of human and animal diseases Biting flies and others pester and annoy. Maggots help recycle as they consume organic matter. Some larvae are predacious (crane flies, flower flies) and tachnid flies are useful parasitoids.
one of the four largest, more than 110,000 species
Peters: Pg 392-397; as pest pg 255-257, 261-265 & 270- 280; as animal pests 266-270.
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